Home  oakhillacademy  Blogs
Group Blogs
1  2  >| 

The Homework Controversy

      The debate concerning the value of school homework continues.  On one side of the argument is that it is busy work and not helping with the learning process.  However, flip the coin and we hear that quality homework that is reinforcing knowledge, challenging, and creative is essential for the student to grow academically.

       Some educators argue that doing homework has negative effects, doesn’t leave room for quality family time, doesn’t allow for exercise/extra activities, and causes conflict within the family.  Others maintain that our kids need to be challenged to be both successful and prepared for college and beyond.  Well, who’s right?  The true answer lies in what kind of after-school work advances learning by offering quality assignments.  The kind of challenge which helps the student clarify information, practice key concepts, and solidify knowledge in long term memory.  In short, will the assignment be worthwhile to the child’s overall intellectual growth?  We must offer ways in which the child better absorbs, retains, and applies knowledge.

       Well, the answer to all this has been studied by educational psychologists who have made remarkable discoveries about how the human brain learns.  Many of these can be used to make homework a powerful learning strategy.

       Here at Oak Hill Academy, a top private school in Monmouth County, New Jersey, we have been using a number of these.  “Spaced repetition” is one example of the kind of evidence-based techniques that researchers have found has a positive impact on learning.  The idea is that our brains will retake and understand information if it gets exposure in briefer sessions spread over a longer period of time.  The theory is that this method works well since our brain first acquires information that is volatile, subject to change, or even likely to disappear.  Practice is the key here in small doses permitting the brain to store this knowledge in long-term memory.  For instance we all can relate to that song that we have heard repeatedly and can totally recall years later including words and melody.  Exposing ourselves to information repeatedly over time fixes it more permanently in our minds, by strengthening the representation of the information that is embedded in our neural networks.  So, tools like the use of flash cards or using a method called interleaving applied to homework.  An interleaved assignment mixes up different kinds of situations to be practiced, instead of grouping them by type.  This allows the brain to work hard and practice the recalled information. Best Monmouth County Private School

       A second learning technique, known as “retrieval practice”, employs low stakes quizzing to help pull information to the front permitting reinforcement. Testing of this pulls up memory, making it stronger and more lasting, so that testing doesn’t just measure, it changes learning.  Retrieval practice can be used in almost every subject area.  Studies tell us that using retrieval practice to learn science for instance; students retain about 50 percent more than if studying in traditional ways.  Homework assignments that require self-quizzing or even making up our own tests from text have a lasting value for retention.  Forming a study group has also been found to have a positive effect as a homework device.

       A third strategy is called “desirable difficulties”.  Here the theory is that learning is promoted when the brain has to work hard to understand information, and the extra effort signals the brain that this material is important.  A challenging assignment might be to have students find mistakes in a math procedure, sprinkle a passage with punctuation mistakes, or deliberately leaving out letters.  Even young children would benefit from doing work where they had to reach for solutions or go beyond rote.  Creative assignments bring a positive attitude toward school work and helps peek curiosity.  They also help improve self-concept in terms of the student’s ability as a learner and assists with the idea that learning also takes place outside of the classroom.  Another out-of-the-box method is to have the student create the assignment.  This can be done by having students use their spelling words to write declarative essays, use complex reading strategies to a text of their choice, or to apply math skills to new math problems.    


      
So, it seems that quality of homework assignments make the difference in advancing the child’s individual growth.  Therefore, assignments which meet the following criteria pushes the student in the direction of learner rather than just doer.

       This criteria is as follows:

       1.  It is desirable to practice skills to promote growth and correct misconceptions.  Deeper understanding is the goal.

       2.  Homework should expose the child to the “Big Idea”.  Just what is this all about?  How is this a part of the real worl


Number of Posts: 0


The prediction is that the growth of the population of the world will grow to 10 billion by 2050 (it is now approximately 7.3 billion) brings with it the fact that our children will be living in a world that will seem smaller.  Such population growth will affect a host of global issues including pollution, disease management, and depletion of energy, food, and water resources.  Added to this list are political conflicts and social problems.  Our neighboring people across the globe will seem closer because of shared problems and international concerns.  For students to participate effectively in this changing world, they must better understand it.  The 21st century individual will sell to the world, buy from the world, work for international companies, compete with people from other countries, manage employees from other cultures, collaborate with people all over the world, and solve global problems. 

Best Private School Monmouth CountyHere at Oak Hill Academy in Monmouth County, New Jersey, we have recognized the need for this understanding and have provided our students with an understanding of global program connectedness for over 30 years.  We believe instruction must start early and address a wide-range of topics that people from all lands share.  The best elementary school curriculums include in-depth knowledge and understanding of worldly issues, an appreciation of and ability to learn and work with people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, proficiency in foreign language, and skills to function productively in our interdependent world society.  These issues are met in all phases of the Oak Hill curriculum including math and science.  Over the last six years, our students and staff have concentrated on cultural diversity across our educational areas.  This was the focus of the school’s Middle States Evaluation process which will be celebrated in a colloquium presented by the school in January of 2018.  This process provided students with instructional practices that consistently engaged global content, multicultural perspectives, and problem solving across subject area.  Oak Hill has a highly diverse student population and this allows for family participation in activities and the sharing of cultural differences.  Students are able to see their own cultures as strengths, while seeking to understand the cultures of others, being aware of similarities and differences among cultures, and understand that behaviors and values are often tied to cultures. Best Monmouth County Private school

The Oak Hill curriculum is broad and includes cultural topics in its foreign language program and the celebration of school-wide global heritage assemblies.  The anchor of the Oak Hill cultural appreciation curriculum is its two-year Global Studies program which takes place during the 5th and 6th grades.  During these years, the Oak Hill students grow to appreciate the geography, customs, religions and cultures of the people across our entire world.  A deep understanding of their daily lives makes it clear that people of countries across our world share  the same hopes and dreams.  Differences, when appreciated, can be used to build positive relations leading to the solution of many of society's problems.  Our well educated students will continue to demonstrate curiosity, empathy and show compassion for the perspectives of others.  They will realize the complexities of our world and have a passion to be a part of developing solutions to the problems we will face in our constantly shrinking world.


<More Blogs>


Number of Posts: 0


Independent schools are often sighted for going far beyond the standard curriculum.  New Jersey independent schools in particular are noted for their breadth of offerings stretching across technology and the arts.  The goal here has always been to provide a well-rounded education.  The atmosphere is such that it is far reaching permitting the child to be engaged and to utilize a multitude of thinking processes.  The hope being that the mind is stimulated to venture, imagine, analyze, predict and formulate thoughts.  The theory goes that the more knowledge provided the brain the more curious the intellect causing an expansion of thought.

The Hidden Curriculum

Enter the hidden curriculum: that aspect of the school experience which may not be listed in the school’s syllabus, but plays an important role in the child’s development.  These involve the part of the school that engages students as unique individuals and prepare them for an uncertain future.  Today we are not sure what the jobs of tomorrow will be so preparation has to broad and far reaching.  It might be to embrace the entrepreneurial opportunities and have the ability to work from anywhere with anyone in the world.  Schools must help students develop an independent mind-set while having the capacity to solve problems, while cooperating with others.  This will require individuals who communicate well with others and formulate collaborative ideas.  Today’s schools have the challenge of facilitating student empowerment in a number of ways, from personalization to supporting student voice, to enabling students to choose how they work and demonstrate mastery. 
Private schools like Oak Hill Academy have the unique advantage to move past a common curriculum in order to focus on a student’s individual development.

?Research indicates that empowering students with life skills leads to many positive outcomes including utilizing a growth mindset, dealing and benefiting from failure, having perseverance, and displaying self-awareness.  Many experts believe these are necessary to thrive in the current and future society.

Having the ability to think and solve problems along with the talent to design pathways to solutions are vital skills in today’s digital age.  The successful individual will be able to combine logic and deep understanding.  Since we are living in a highly technical world, it will be even more necessary for us to be familiar with the vocabulary and processes to effectively communicate in our digital world.

Predicting the future is rarely possible, but anticipating and being prepared must be at the forefront of how we educate our children.  Making good decisions, attaining leadership skills, being able to cope effectively with adversity are also a part of the hidden curriculum that will lead to a generation of happy and capable young people.  Combining these with our core skills, we must also emphasize that our children must grow up in a world that is respectful of others, cares for our fellow man, and empathizes with their needs.
<More Blogs>
Save

Number of Posts: 0


NAIS Graduates are Prepared

The National Association of Independent schools across the United States are preparing their students more than ever for college and beyond.  The statistics are in and they are staggering. Best Private School Monmouth County

          Oak Hill Academy in Monmouth County, New Jersey, is one of those independent schools and continues to be educating high achievers who are well prepared for all aspects of their future schooling as well as ready for the society that they’ll be joining.

          Nearly 100% of the graduates of NAIS schools go on to college ranging in majors from journalism to nuclear physics.  They come out of school with SAT scores on average 293 points higher than other students.  They also enjoy being challenged academically with 76% of NAIS students stating that their schoolwork makes them curious to learn more and 74% enjoying tasks that require a lot of mental effort.  These grads are over three times more likely to attend top-ranked universities than graduates of other high schools.  The foundation for this success is built in the strong academic atmosphere found in independent elementary and middle schools.   Here children are presented with the skills to be better readers, writers, mathematicians, and just outright thinkers.  These children also develop a sense of social responsibility as they perform community service.  As they move on to high school they tend to be more capable of asking good questions, formulating logical arguments, and communicating well thought-out ideas.  They use their knowledge and skills to be leaders and to collaborate with their peers. Best Private School Monmouth County

          It has also been found that 29% of NAIS grads were extremely active in key extracurricular activities compared to 19% of public school graduates and nearly 45% held leadership positions in a club/organization.  These roles helped them develop time-management and communication skills.  Participation in these extracurricular activities also show higher levels of well-being later in life.

          Byproducts of an independent school education also encompass a host of other factors.  Self-confidence and being able to take well thought-out risks lead these grads to careers which use their imaginations to seek innovation.  They tend to be deep thinkers who are able to take on challenges as well as to measure situations to make good decisions.

          Also, because of the broad exposure to varied curriculum, NAIS grads build curiosity and global awareness.  It is also found they can think on their feet, have a good amount of resilience, and possess very effective social skills.

          For parents who are committed to sending their children to NAIS schools, they realize that their financial investment will have far reaching consequences and will pay great future dividends when these students become adults who are fulfilled and successful in their chosen fields of endeavor.

<More Blogs>


Number of Posts: 0


#12 - Oak Hill Students Explore

                We are living in an information society.  Information is the new capital and material with communication the new means of production.  With this as our focus, we at Oak Hill Academy, a private elementary school, have embarked on a very exciting program for our students which we have entitled, “Explorations”.  Utilizing our state-of-the-art tech facilities, we are offering our students some of the latest tools to assist them to gather information, analyze data, and to draw conclusions.  Through the interaction with electronic media, cooperative learning, and real-life issues, our students are challenged with open-ended questions and projects which will stimulate their creativity, problem solving ability, and critical thinking.  Students experience topics in social studies, humanities, and science, while recording their work in individual portfolios.  A necessary requirement is for the student team to do a presentation in the form of a power-point, lecture, debate, or multi-media vehicle. Best Private School Monmouth County

            As an independent school in Monmouth County, New Jersey, our goal is for our students to be active seekers of knowledge in a learning lab environment.  This program finds students working with teacher mentors while in groups pursuing topics of personal interest which they have a passion to study.  As students move through the “Explorations” process, they find topics of interest which they can work on independently, work through roadblocks and failures, finish a published product, and then finally share with an audience.

            In Explorations, there is no lack of access to information; however, the key is to find good information.  There is no quick fix, but the benefits are paid in seeing independent, creative, engaged learners.  A by-product of this program is that students are refining their communication skills both written and verbal.  They often learn so many things that were never expected from their initial topic project which may lead to other areas of interest.

            Participants consume so much more content than they produce, from videos to articles online to music.  This Private School Monmouth Countyapproach helps them learn how to consume well and then produce something worthwhile from it.  Gathering new ideas and information is one thing; however, when students know they must parse all of that into a product, a presentation, a website or something else – it can really focus their effort.

            In conclusion, students will be entering a workplace vastly different than that of their parents.  Employers will want individuals with the ability to assemble, unify and evaluate information, as well as communicate that information.  The best school programs such as Oak Hill’s Explorations curriculum help develop collaborators, writers, critical thinkers and speakers needed by today’s society.  We realize that textbooks no longer define what is taught and real world study keeps curiosity as a priority which promotes effective learning environments that stimulate interest and engage all learners.

<More Blogs>


Number of Posts: 0


#13 – 23 Ways to Show Kids You Care!     

Our children today are living in a fast moving society which often times creates stress where it should not necessarily occur.  Homes and the best elementary schools should be places where our kids can simply feel comfortable and cared for.  There are ways that we can provide for our children’s safety and well-being while still not sheltering them from real life realities.  This balancing act needs a good blend of helping to build a solid sense of individual strength while maintaining an established support system.  Ultimately, we want our kids to be able to stand on their own two feet as they mature through each level of childhood.  The following is a list of suggestions that might be helpful to assist children to grow into responsible and caring adults.

     Best Monmouth County Private School     1.  Respect Them – As an private, independent school, Oak Hill Academy holds respect high on the traits list we wish for all of our community.  As role models, we can demonstrate how we must treat each other.

          2.  Be understanding when they have a difficult day.  Children especially need that helping hand when things don’t go as planned.

          3.  Give them good choices and encourage them to make good thought out decisions.

          4.  Respect the choices they make.  Either with play, friends, hobbies, and school.

          5.  Be silly together!  Nothing brings families together than a good laugh.

          6.  Make time to be with them.  Heavy schedules often mean limited time together as a family.  Make the best of these by having quality time together.

          7.  Let them play outside.  Being outdoors has a great many benefits including fresh air, nature study, and room to run.

          8.  Inspire their creativity.  Young children must be encouraged to explore by writing, drawing and building.

          9.  Help them learn something new.  Today our world is an open door to adventure everywhere be it in museums, other countries, or via the Internet. Best Private School NJ

          10.  Accept them as they are.  Children are unique in their personalities and mannerisms.  Take these as special gifts and allow them to grow.

          11.  Talk honestly with them.  Families are dynamic social institutions.  Honest dialogue can build strength and endurance.

          12.  Trust them.  There will be times when a little slack can bring a more willingness for children to confide when times become difficult.

          13.  Be available.  Often children simply just need that assuring word or look.

          14.  Encourage them to help others.  Besides the obvious benefit to others, we get some special internal rewards when we reach out to others.

          15.  Daydream with them.  Remember, the best is yet to come.  Dreams are the starting point to a life filled with possibilities.

          16.  Encourage them to think big.  Remember when we shoot for the sky, even if we miss, we will be amongst the stars.

          17.  Help them learn from mistakes.  Taking some well thought out risks often don’t work out.  However, mistakes lead to great corrections which prepare us better for the next try.  Remember, nothing ventured, nothing gained.

          18.  Tell them what you expect of them.  Believe it or not, children really do want our guidance when going forward.  As parents and teachers, our expectations for them as they move forward provides valuable guideposts.


Number of Posts: 0


Ever wonder how you can remember the lyrics of a song that was popular and you sang along with maybe 20 years ago, but still forget what you may have had for breakfast?

We spend a lifetime using our brains during every waking and sleeping moment to acquire knowledge.  Some refer to our brains as the infinite resource being able to solve a multitude of problems on a daily basis.  It is obvious that we must have knowledge to solve problems in our work or home whether it be social, emotional or even functional.  In order to be successful in formulating a pathway for solution, we need a reservoir of information and data that we acquire from our reading, communicating with others, and by doing formal study.  Having facts, ideas, and methods available in our memories we can analyze, conclude, and understand.  The more knowledge we gain, the more curious we become and innovation is not far behind.
Collaborative Learning

So the question is; What are the best techniques for students to study so that they may retain the greatest amount of knowledge which they need in their daily schooling?  The brain makes connections on bits of information it is presented and formulates ideas on what follows in memory.  Cognitive scientists have been working for years on how the brain processes thoughts and makes sense of various stimuli.  The latest research suggests that spaced repetition is one of the most powerful vehicles to help us learn.  Simply quizzing ourselves often pays great benefits.  Each time our brain tries and is successful in retrieving information, the greater its capacity to solidify in memory.  As an independent school, we find that reviewing information or practicing at the right time is critical for durable learning.  Spaced repetition or “Distributed Practice” refers to reviews that take place after some time from the original learning event, as opposed to reviews that occur immediately following the original learning event (termed massed practice).

Using Spaced Practice takes a little of planning to begin with; however, in the long run information will remain in memory longer and will actually reduce study time.  Here’s how it works!  Using a vehicle such as flash cards is the easiest way to begin.  Studying your cards for five hours spread out over two weeks is better than the same five hours all at once.  Review information from each class, but not immediately after class.  After reviewing information from the most recent class, make sure to go back and study important older information to keep it fresh.  Just like in sports, practice makes perfect.  Using flash cards or apps. like Anki or Quizlet are much more powerful than just re-reading your class notes.  At first this may seem difficult and you may forget some information from day-to-day, but this is actually a good thing!  A little struggle forces the brain to retrieve information from memory making topics more understandable and cased in stone as they say.  Creating small spaces between study while doing a little bit over time adds up in the future.
Problem Solving Cards

In the research literature, the learning advantage of distributed over massed practice is known as the spacing effect.  In general, the research is clear that spaced practice is superior for long-term learning and retention.  The reason that spaced repetition seems to work is that each time the information you are attempting to remember is recalled your brain has to search for this information and this deep process of retrieval over time strengthens the neural connections.  It is also thought that this practice is the secret to long term retention of knowledge since this process helps connect related material and presents the brain with the opportunity to become creative to solve problems in life.
<More Blogs>


Number of Posts: 0


          As we all know, seeing is one of the first senses and learning tools that we use from birth.  Even at the pre-kindergarten level we realize that our tiniest learners are observing so many wonderful adventures through their view of the world.  Colors and even shades present magical moments for children as they view the contrast and depth of objects.  Size and light present their own magic images.  As we grow, we often take our visual experience for granted and often we are so preoccupied with our everyday experiences that we miss out on things which may be right in front of us.

Amy E. Herman has written a wonderful book entitled, “Visual Intelligence”.  Amy is an Art Historian and also an attorney who works for the FBI and local police on crime scene investigations.  She suggests that we often see, but do not observe.  We anticipate and sometimes miss the details which might make us interpret an occurrence in a totally different way.  Sometimes two or more people will view an event and come away with it having a quite different view of what occurred.  Even with a major event such as 911, a couple who lived blocks from the Trade Center had a much different analysis of this horrific part of our country’s history.

Private School Monmouth CountyAmy believes that to get the most accurate picture of something (anything), we need to see others’ perceptions and recognize their point of view.  This is one of the most important parts of collaborative learning.  What we think we see can sometimes be adjusted using other people’s opinion.  She also suggests that perception is shaped by a person’s values, upbringing, and culture.  All neighborhoods and communities have a huge impact on what we digest as visual input on an everyday basis.  Certainly as a city dweller might view an occurrence in a totally different way than someone growing up on a farm.

Ms. Herman has found that technology has added a great number of benefits to our experiences, however the cell phone has caused tunnel vision and we must train ourselves to be more perceptive and observant.  We often are fooled and will see what we expect to see or what we want to see.  It may very well be that we are told what we are seeing and don’t take the time to look for ourselves.  Often this gives a preconception and taints our view.  It is also important to notice changes in a situation or whether there is any missing information.  We will also have a different view if we look for the fine details.  This might fill in the pieces and lead to a revised conclusion.

Verifying facts is also a part of visual intelligence.  Assuming something to be true may often lead to a false assumption.  The good news is that Amy Herman’s experience tells us that we really can become better at visual perception and that proper seeing can be learned.  The neural pathway can be strengthened and rewired for a better view of life in general.  She feels that our educational system can actually sharpen our perception by applying the four A’s:  Access, Analyze, Articulate and Adapt.  Amy’s book does a wonderful job of spelling these out and its methods for implementation. Monmouth County Private School

Most private schools in New Jersey have strong art programs which emphasizes vision as a skill for overall learning.  Independent schools like Oak Hill Academy have the freedom in their curriculum to connect the arts to their other content coursework, thereby allowing for connections in the brain that will promote visual intelligence.
<More Blogs>


Number of Posts: 0


In one of my last Blogs, I spoke about Spaced Repetition. Well, there is a co-technique which goes hand-in-hand with spaced practice which is merely the testing of retention shortly after learning to make sure encoding is accurate, then working longer to retrieve again, then waiting still longer for a third retrieval and so on.  The idea is that our memory is improved more by active than by passive repetition.  Psychologists believe that the brain performs better if it is continuously tested over intervals of time rather than learning through lectures, reading, and highlighting, etc.

            This low-stakes testing is called, The Testing Effect, and if used properly,  is believed to improve retention greatly.  This technique allows the brain to retrieve without deep study, but by repeated effort to recall, thus trying to draw out knowledge from the brain rather than putting information in.  Each attempt to retrieve makes the brain implant this knowledge into long-term memory.  With each attempt, feedback that includes the correct answer increases learning because it enables test takers to correct errors and to retain correct responses.  Successful retrieval is the key here.  It is also thought that testing promotes transfer of knowledge; that is, the knowledge gained through testing be flexibly used to contrast new responses and answer different questions.

          Monmouth  County Private SchoolHere at Oak Hill Academy, a private school in New Jersey, we will be experimenting with this technique starting in the new school year by instructing our 5th to 8th grades using repeated quizzing on delayed tests in both social studies and science classes.  Frequent low stakes quizzing forces students to stay current with the course by studying more regularly.  In addition, benefits of testing beyond the specific information have been found to increase retention of related, but non-tested material as well.  It must be remembered, however, that retrieval practice should be used as a learning strategy, not as an assessment tool.  Used properly this practice enhances learning overall allowing for added creativity and innovation.  In other words, retrieval practice doesn’t just lead to memorization, it increases understanding.  Since students have a better understanding of classroom material by having practiced using this information, students can adapt their knowledge to new situations, novel questions, and related contexts.  Another huge benefit of this practice is that it helps us figure out what we don’t know. 

            To study for a big test, many students reread their books and notes.  But even more effective would be to try to remember the material on their own.  That’s retrieval practice.  It is a kind of active learning that many students don’t make use of.  The key idea is that retrieval can turn passively – absorbed information into true understanding and knowledge.  In other words, when students recall what they’ve learned, on a quiz or practice test with the book closed, it improves their knowledge.  Two useful apps for retrieval practice are Quizlet and Anki. Monmouth County Private School

            Caution, there is a warning that goes along with all of this; retrieval practice makes learning effortful and challenging.  Because retrieving information requires mental effort, we often think we are doing poorly if we can’t remember something.  We may feel like progress is slow, but that’s when our best learning takes place.  As the saying goes, “no pain, no gain.”

<More Blogs>


Number of Posts: 0


Good Reading Requires Background Knowledge

Educators have found over the years that decoding is not sufficient alone to develop good readers.  Reading comprehension must also incorporate background knowledge and vocabulary.  First, the child must master phonemic awareness and decoding skills, and then be exposed to a broad base of oral vocabulary, general knowledge and visual stimulation.  Building strong vocabulary and general knowledge must begin even before a child is able to read on their own.  Reading aloud to the pre-school or kindergartener is essential to the growth of a successful reader.  These would include a wide range of fiction and non-fiction from social studies, science and real life everyday situations.  Children must be encouraged to pose questions, describe the storyline, compare various situations and come to conclusion.  Fables, poetry and folk hero stories are rich in graphic action, emotions and morals.  Added to this mix should be a wide variety of visual works of art and photography.  The stories told in good graphic presentations bring stories to life and contain sometimes more than which we see as a first impression.  Young readers can also have fun by examining the background of the characters and predict what may happen next.  As the vocabulary grows, young readers will also be able to retell and decide the where, what, why and when. Best Private School NJ

               The key to a good reading program is to offer high interest topics which challenge the imagination and present “what if” questions to the mind.  One such reading sequence that Oak Hill Academy will be instituting in September of 2017 is from the Core Knowledge Foundation.  It is the natural fit for top private schools.  This program is rich in history, geography and science encouraging the building of vocabulary allowing children to be “word collectors”.  Stories will be offered which engage children’s curiosity with historical characters and topics which encourages discussion.

               The elements of stories:  beginnings, middle and end are enhanced by fostering active participation by children writing their own stories, acting out plays and using art to share ideas.  Strong by-products of a core knowledge vocabulary sequence are the child’s new found comfort in speaking, listening and writing.  As children become more secure with their vocabulary, their thirst for more learning begins to explode.

               Through the exposure of a rich base of target words, the core knowledge curriculum encourages children to be good thinkers and read for fluency.  Research has found that our ability to read stretches across all subject areas, permits fruitful lifelong learners and helps the individual meet their highest potential. 

<More Blogs>


Number of Posts: 0

1  2  >|